Where in the world to invest in plant conservation

31 05 2010

© CBD

It’s been a good few weeks with many of our papers coming out online early – for example, I highlighted one last week on ecosystem function breakdown from global warming.

Although this has been out for a few weeks, our new paper lead by PhD candidate Xingli Giam (formerly of National University of Singapore, recently completed Australian Endeavour Scholar, now at Princeton University and all-round up-and-coming research star), and with contributions from Hugh “Vascular” Tan and Navjot Sodhi of National University of Singapore and me, is entitled Future habitat loss and the conservation of plant biodiversity (just published online in Biological Conservation).

This one is a bit of a complicated one, so let me walk you through it.

Plants not only represent a huge component of global biodiversity (~320 000 species), they represent the ‘habitats’ in which animals live and provide the major source of nutrients to food webs. They also provide most of our food and other materials essential for human existence. Basically we’d be screwed without them.

Because so many of the world’s biomes are severely threatened now because of massive habitat loss, degradation, over-exploitation, invasive species, extinction synergies and climate change, we need to maximise our efficiency in protecting what’s left. While global prioritisation schemes have a fruitful scientific history since Myers & colleagues’ classic paper (see Biodiversity Hotspots), there are a number of problems that plague the concept and its implementation. Read the rest of this entry »





Why and how did Pleistocene megafauna go extinct?

27 05 2010

Just a quick post to say that I’m currently at Duke University in the USA attending a special National Evolutionary Synthesis Centre ‘Catalysis Meeting’ entitled: Integrating datasets to investigate megafaunal extinction in the Late Quaternary.

The meeting is basically about nailing down some of the remaining mysteries and controversies surrounding the extinction of many species during periods of rapid climate change 11-60 thousand years ago.

It’s been fun so far, and a lot of exciting analysis will ensue, but for the meantime I’ll just summarise what we’re trying to do. Read the rest of this entry »





The planet is our bottle

22 05 2010

Professor Chris Thomas, conservation ecologist extraordinaire, tells it like it is. This might be a little basic for many ConservationBytes.com readers, but it’s the kind of pitch that might convince even the stupidest of yobs. I reproduce the Guardian article here in full.

Why do we care about nature, and can we actually quantify what the benefits are? This is what the UN’s The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (Teeb) project is all about, and the answer is remarkable. The natural world – biodiversity – provides us with food, materials and energy. We eat animals and plants; insects pollinate many of the foods we consume; microbes in the soil provide the nutrients the plants to grow; vegetation and soil biodiversity reduce flooding and release clean drinking water; vegetation soaks up a substantial proportion of the climate warming carbon dioxide gasses that we emit. The list goes on and on. Urban and rural citizens alike rely on these natural products and benefits.

The real cost of damaging nature, it turns out, is at least 10 times greater than the cost of maintaining the ecosystem as it is so that we can reap the associated benefits. To take an example close to the University of York where I work, the costs of flood defence construction and flood-related insurance claims in the Vale of York hugely outweigh the agricultural benefits of drainage ditches and overgrazing in the River Ouse catchment. Rather than treating nature as a pleasant luxury, Teeb argues that we should integrate the real costs and benefits within our decision-making. It should not be the preserve solely of environment and conservation ministries, but it should be at the core of the activities of finance departments. Teeb argues that we should get rid of subsidies that are environmentally damaging and reward beneficial activities that maintain natural ecosystems. This might be by including the costs of damage within the purchase price of products to encourage us to buy the least damaging items, and potentially by paying land owners and countries directly to maintain natural ecosystems. Farmers in the Ouse catchment have recently received payments for blocking their drainage ditches; and the perverse subsidies that rewarded farmers by the animal – resulting in over-grazing, trampling and erosion – have been removed. It can be done. Achieving this at a global scale is far more difficult. Read the rest of this entry »





A world of hurt – the webinar

19 05 2010

Ah – finally. The World of Hurt webinar (many thanks to @fang for showing me how to do this).

CJA Bradshaw





A world of hurt – the video

19 05 2010

In case you couldn’t be there in person, here’s the podcast of last week’s talk I gave at the University of Adelaide’s Research Tuesdays seminar series – A world of hurt. The true global death count of environmental degradation.

View video here. See also the ‘Between the Buttons’ preamble AudioBoo here.

CJA Bradshaw

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Ecosystem functions breaking down from climate change

17 05 2010

I’m particularly proud to present to ConservationBytes.com readers a new paper we’ve just had published online in Journal of Animal Ecology: Mechanisms driving change: altered species interactions and ecosystem function through global warming (Lochran Traill, Matt Lim, Navjot Sodhi and me).

It wasn’t easy to write a review discussing climate change effects on biodiversity, mainly because so many have been written already and we needed to examine the issue from a fresh perspective. The evidence for single species’ responses to rapidly shifting climates around the world is overwhelming (see for a few thousand examples, see the following: Stenseth et al. 2002; Parmesan et al. 2003, 2006; Roessig et al. 2004; Thomas et al. 2004; Poloczanska et al. 2007; Skelly et al. 2004; Dunn et al. 2009). It’s rather remarkable how many things are moving in response, with reduction in range size being more common than expansion.

However, predicting extinction risk from climate change is far more problematic because traditionally there have been too few data on species interactions to make heads or tails of a particular species’ eventual response (e.g., see comment on Chris Thomas’ famous paper regarding this matter). As systems heat up, some species will change in abundance, thereby affecting the abundance of others (think predators and prey, pollinators and their host plants, etc.) – this whole complicated process combined with single-species’ responses makes predicting what a future ecosystem might look like nearly impossible. Add in all the other ecosystem damage we’ve done from forest clearance, invasive species and over-harvesting, it’s a right mess.

It is for this reason we focussed on reviewing the links between species rather than on the species’ responses per se. We looked specifically at ecosystem function, that is, “the processes that facilitate energy transfer along food webs, and the major processes that allow the cycling of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. ‘Function’ also includes ecosystem services.” Read the rest of this entry »





PhD scholarships in marine plant ecology and conservation

12 05 2010

Two new APAI (Australian Postgraduate Award – Industry) PhD scholarships are available at the University of Adelaide, both in marine ecology and conservation.

Molecular Systematics and Ecology of Marine Macroalgae

Dr. Frederico Gurgel at the University of Adelaide is seeking 2 PhD students interested in working on several aspects of the marine green macroalgal genus Caulerpa. Honour students are also welcome to apply. APAI PhD scholarships are the best-paid scholarships from the Australian Research Council (fees + AU$26,000 p.a. for 3 yrs). Possible co-advisors: Prof. Corey Bradshaw (University of Adelaide/South Australian Research and Development Institute – SARDI), Dr. Jason Tanner (SARDI), and Dr. Marty Deveney (SARDI). External collaborators: Dr. Peter Grewe (CSIRO Marine), Dr. John Runcie (University of Sydney). Starting date: any time.

Integrative approach to the study of Caulerpa taxifolia in Australia: Ecological, Physiology, Phylogeography and DNA barcoding

The students will perform comparative ecological and physiological assays among Australian native and invasive strains of C. taxifolia (and related species) to study their response (e.g., growth, reproduction, photosynthesis, gene expression) to distinct abiotic factors and global climate change scenarios (e.g., pCO2, pH, temperature, light, salinity, nutrients). Students will perform a multi-marker comparative phylogeographic study among 14 invasive (NSW and SA) and 4 native (QLD, NT, WA) populations to determine the origin of introduced populations in temperate Australia. Students will build a dual-marker DNA barcode database of all species of Caulerpa in Australia as a tool to identify morphologically compromised specimens. Additionally, they will perform a molecular-assisted evolutionary (phylogenetic) study of the genus and develop demographic models to predict the fate of Caulerpa populations under different abiotic scenarios. The students will have the option to choose the components of the project they desire.

Desirable skills: 4WD and manual driving, snorkelling, SCUBA diving certification (open water minimum), molecular biology experience.

For more information please contact Dr. Fred Gurgel (e-mail or telephone: +61 8 8222 9291).

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